By William D. Davies
Madurese is an immense neighborhood language of Indonesia, with a few 14 million audio system, more often than not at the island of Madura and adjoining components of Java, making it the fourth greatest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. there isn't any latest accomplished descriptive grammar of the language, with current experiences being both sketches of the complete grammar, or distinctive descriptions of phonology and morphology or a few specific themes inside those parts of the grammar. there is not any competing paintings that gives the breadth and intensity of assurance of this grammar, particularly (though now not completely) with reference to syntax.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Madurese (Mouton Grammar Library 50)
1. Aspiration is discussed in section 6. 16 Chapter 2 Phonology /ɲ/ voiced palatal nasal [ɲ] in syllable-initial position, does not occur in syllable-final position (except geminates) [ɲaman] ‘delicious’ [taɲa] ‘ask’ // voiced velar nasal  in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [ara] ‘possible’ [aɛs] ‘cry’ [sənnə] ‘happy’ [sɛkɔ] ‘I’ /s/ voiceless alveolar fricative [s] in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [sakɛ] ‘sick’ [sampɛ] ‘until’ [alas] ‘forest’ [maskɛ] ‘although’ /r/ voiced alveolar trill [r] in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [raɤ] ‘large’ [sɔra] ‘letter’ [kapɤr] ‘news’ [kəras] ‘paper’ /l/ voiced alveolar lateral approximant [l] in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [lɛɛr] ‘neck’ [alas] ‘forest’ [bɤnal] ‘pillow’ [unɛl] ‘skilled’ The glides [j] and [w] have a special status.
Oka et al. 1988/89, and at others as a slightly raised ɛ [ɛ], or ɔ, [ɔ] (Stevens 1968). Potential examples include: (35) [sɛ] ~ [sɛ] ~ [se] ‘relative particle’ [rɛja] ~ [rɛja] ~ [reja] ‘that’ [pɔlɛ] ~ [pɔlɛ] ~ [pole] ‘again’ [ratɔ] ~ [ratɔ] ~ [rato] ‘king’ Again, there is a great deal of speaker variation. Acoustic analysis does not confirm a reliable difference in open and closed syllables. 23 Cohn and Lockwood (1994) report a different tense/lax alternation involving [ɛ]/[e] and [ɔ]/[o].
At the same time, the difference in the vowel space that they report for [ə] and [ɨ] is much less dramatic than the differences for the other pairs, and indeed there was some overlap in their distribution. The space occupied by each of the vowels in the other pairs was essentially completely distinct from its partner. Cohn & Lockwood found little difference in the average F2s of the pair of vowels but found the difference between the average F1s to be comparable for [i]/[ɛ], [u]/[ɔ] and [ɨ]/[ə] (the difference in the F1 averages for [ɤ]/[a] were dramatically higher).
A Grammar of Madurese (Mouton Grammar Library 50) by William D. Davies