Get 300 historias de palabras: Cómo nacen y llegan hasta PDF

By Espasa Calpe

ISBN-10: 8467046465

ISBN-13: 9788467046465

¿De dónde viene l. a. palabra «adefesio»? ¿Cómo los angeles palabra «chusma» puede venir del griego, donde significaba «orden»? ¿Por qué «hortera»se ha convertido en un insulto? Las palabras encierran una curiosa historia que narra su viaje en el tiempo y en el espacio, y el español es especialmente rico en historias de palabras. La historia de nuestra lenga está llena de préstamos del latín, el griego, el árabe, el vasco, el francés o el inglés, que se han adaptado en su forma y muchas veces también en su significado. Por otra parte, los angeles expansión del español en el mundo, especialmente en América, ha hecho que muchas palabras cobren significados propios en otros países.A través de three hundred ejemplos curiosos y sorprendentes recorremos el viaje de las palabras desde su origen hasta sus usos actuales.

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Extra info for 300 historias de palabras: Cómo nacen y llegan hasta nosotros las palabras que usamos

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Motivated by the fact that there exist acyclic planar digraphs that do not admit any RAC drawing, we study the time complexity of the corresponding decision problem. 26 P. Angelini et al. We show that the problem of testing whether a digraph admits a straight-line upward RAC drawing (U PWARD RAC D RAWABILITY T ESTING) is NP-hard, by means of a reduction from the problem of testing whether a digraph admits a straight-line upward planar drawing (U PWARD P LANARITY T ESTING), which is NP-complete [9].

Suppose, for a contradiction, that there exists a straight-line RAC drawing Γ of G with an angle ui ui+2 ui+4 ≥ 180◦ inside C . Then, any two segments orthogonally crossing ui ui+2 and ui+2 ui+4 , respectively, meet at a point outside C , possibly at infinity, while they should meet at un−2 , which is inside C . Thus, either un−2 ui+1 is not orthogonal to ui ui+2 or un−2 ui+3 is not orthogonal to ui+2 ui+4 , hence contradicting the assumption that Γ is a RAC drawing. 6 Conclusions and Open Problems When a graph G does not admit any planar drawing in some desired drawing convention, requiring that all the crossings form right angles can be considered as an alternative solution for the readability of a drawing of G.

Three-dimensional orthogonal graph drawing algorithms. Discrete Applied Mathematics 103(1-3), 55–87 (2000) 9. : On the computational complexity of upward and rectilinear planarity testing. SIAM Journal on Computing 31(2), 601–625 (2001) 10. : An eye tracking study into the effects of graph layout. 4431 (2008) 11. : Effects of crossing angles. In: PacificVis, pp. 41–46 (2008) 12. , Wagner, D. ): Drawing Graphs. Springer, Heidelberg (2001) 13. : Upward planarity testing of outerplanar dags. G. ) GD 1994.

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300 historias de palabras: Cómo nacen y llegan hasta nosotros las palabras que usamos by Espasa Calpe


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